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Author Topic: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis  (Read 74 times)

Description: diagnosing tuberculosis, via blood, sputum, xrays Ziel Neesen staining

auntiebiotic

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Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
« on: November 04, 2016, 21:19:12 PM »






Tuberculosis is diagnosed by finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in a clinical specimen taken from the patient. While other investigations may strongly suggest tuberculosis as the diagnosis, they cannot confirm it.

A complete medical evaluation for tuberculosis (TB) must include a medical history, a physical examination, a chest X-ray and microbiological examination (of sputum or some other appropriate sample). It may also include a tuberculin skin test, other scans and X-rays, surgical biopsy.

To diagnosis TB doctors will check the following:

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drxrayTuberculosis is diagnosed by finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in a clinical specimen taken from the patient. While other investigations may strongly suggest tuberculosis as the diagnosis, they cannot confirm it.

A complete medical evaluation for tuberculosis (TB) must include a medical history, a physical examination, a chest X-ray and microbiological examination (of sputum or some other appropriate sample). It may also include a tuberculin skin test, other scans and X-rays, surgical biopsy.

To diagnosis TB doctors will check the following:

1 Medical history
2 Physical examination
3 Microbiological studies
3.1 Sputum
3.2 Alternative sampling
3.3 PCR
3.4 Other
4 Radiography
4.1 Chest X-ray and CT
4.2 Abreugraphy
5 Immunological test
5.1 ALS Assay
5.2 Tuberculin skin test
5.3 Mantoux skin test
5.4 Heaf test
5.5 CDC classification of tuberculin reaction
5.6 BCG vaccine and tuberculin skin test
5.7 Adenosine deaminase
5.8 Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT)
5.9 Full blood count


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Medical history
The medical history includes obtaining the symptoms of pulmonary TB: productive, prolonged cough of three or more weeks, chest pain, and hemoptysis. Systemic symptoms include low grade remittent fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, easy fatiguability, and production of sputum that starts out mucoid but changes to purulent. Other parts of the medical history include prior TB exposure, infection or disease; past TB treatment; demographic risk factors for TB; and medical conditions that increase risk for TB disease such as HIV infection.

Depending on the sort of patient population surveyed, as few as 20%, or as many as 75% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases may be without symptoms.

Tuberculosis should be suspected when a pneumonia-like illness has persisted longer than three weeks, or when a respiratory illness in an otherwise healthy individual does not respond to regular antibiotics.

Physical examinationMicrobiological studiesSputum (spit)
Sputum smears and cultures should be done for acid-fast bacilli if the patient is producing sputum. The preferred method for this is fluorescence microscopy (auramine-rhodamine staining), which is more sensitive than conventional Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

In cases where there is no spontaneous sputum production, a sample can be induced, usually by nebulized inhalation of a saline or saline with bronchodilator solution. A comparative study found that inducing three sputum samples is more sensitive than three gastric washings.

Radiography Chest X-ray and CT scan

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licensehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis_diagnosis
« Last Edit: November 08, 2016, 16:19:58 PM by auntiebiotic »

 


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